Setting up mujoco-py for use with on-screen and off-screen rendering

Setting up mujoco-py for on-screen and off-screen rendering on Ubuntu 18.04

System packages

sudo apt install patchelf libosmesa6-dev libegl1-mesa libgl1-mesa-glx libglfw3 libglew-dev

Installing MuJoCo

Download MuJoCo, create the ~/.mujoco/ directory. Place your MuJoCo key inside this directory, naming it mjkey.txt, and unzip MuJoCo 2.0.0 inside it, creating the following directory structure:

├── mjkey.txt
└── mujoco200/

Additionally, so that code can compile and link against MuJoCo, you need to add it to your library path; this can be done by adding

export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:$HOME/.mujoco/mujoco200/bin

to your ~/.bashrc and sourceing it.

Installing mujoco-py

This can either be installed via pip with

pip install -U 'mujoco-py<2.1,>=2.0'

or by cloning the repo and running

make test
pip install -e .

inside it to compile from source. We recommend cloning the repo and building from source, as this gives you access to examples/ that will be useful below.

Selecting the proper graphics library

Due to the nature of the graphics libraries that MuJoCo uses, it’s not possible to render to the viewer and programatically render images for a MuJoCo camera without causing errors. This is because rendering off-screen and rendering with the viewer require two different graphics libraries (EGL vs GLEW respectively).

Graphics library for running viewer

If we try to run one of the mujoco-py examples (e.g. examples/, we get the following error:

Creating window glfw
ERROR: GLEW initalization error: Missing GL version

To remedy this, we need to set the LD_PRELOAD environment variable to point to the; on my system, this is /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/, but you can confirm this on your system by running locate; multiple copies may appear (e.g. in snap packages or conda environments) but at least one should exist at the above path. As a permanant fix, we recommend adding

export LD_PRELOAD=$LD_PRELOAD:/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/

to your ~/.bashrc and sourceing it. The examples/ should now render.

Graphics library for rendering off-screen

In order to render off-screen, e.g. by saving images from MuJoCo camera objects while running headless, we must use EGL instead of GLEW. To do this comment out any LD_PRELOAD= command in your ~/.bashrc and remove any MjViewer creation in your code.

To demo this, modify examples/ as follows

model = load_model_from_xml(MODEL_XML)
sim = MjSim(model)
# viewer = MjViewer(sim)
while True:[0] = math.cos(t / 10.) * 0.01[1] = math.sin(t / 10.) * 0.01
    res = sim.render(255, 255, camera_name="rgb")
    print(type(res), res.shape)
    # viewer.render()
    if t > 100 and os.getenv('TESTING') is not None:

Note the sim.render() call, and the commented out viewer calls. This should print that res is a 255 x 255 x 3 numpy array representing an RGB image from the rgb camera.